The U.S. entered a recession in February, according to the official economic arbiter

Identifies what methodologies exist to identify economic turning points in real time and what indicators leading international statistical and economic institutions publish. Contact: Andrew Walton. Release date: 27 April Print this Article. Download as PDF. According to a survey of leading statistical and economic institutions, business and consumer surveys are the most popular source of data for leading indicators for example, surveys asking business managers about their order books and production plans have proved very useful leading indicators. Composite indicators are the most popular type of turning point indicators, while indicators based on factor analysis and regime-switching models have recently been successfully developed, and indicators based on manufacturing activity and the yield curve are well-regarded in the US.

The U.S. Entered a Recession in February

That the COVID pandemic would trigger a recession in the United States and across the world was long seen as an inevitability, given the disastrous effect the virus has had on global trade, domestic consumption, unemployment and everyday economic activity. Now, the National Bureau of Economic Research—a private non-profit research firm that traditionally declares the start and end of a recession—has come out with an official verdict: The United States entered into a recession in February.

The peak marks the end of the expansion that began in June and the beginning of a recession.

economic expansions and contractions, and its correlation with the US business cycle. We conclude in Section 7. 2. Coincident Indices and Factor Models.

Introduction; 2. The model; 3. Empirical results; 4. Out-of-sample forecasting; 5. Key words: business cycle; growth cycle; Markov switching; non-parametric rules. This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production.

The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity.

In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

Key Features of Australian Business Cycles

The members of the committee reach a subjective consensus about business cycle turning points, and this decision is generally accepted as the official dating of the U. Although careful deliberations are applied to determine turning points, the NBER procedure cannot be used to monitor business cycles on a current basis. Generally, the committee meets months after a turning point that is, the beginning or end of an economic recession has occurred and releases a decision only when there is no doubt regarding the dating.

Boschan dating algorithms on regional data to examine Spanish regional business cycles Quiros () show that this model captures the U.S. business cycle.

The worst U. Though it seemed a foregone conclusion, the NBER, the official arbiter of recessions, made the declaration Monday as the nation tries to recover from the coronavirus pandemic. In making the declaration, the committee determined that a “clear peak in monthly economic activity” occurred in February. The peak in quarterly activity happened in the fourth quarter of As a rule of thumb, recessions are thought to entail two consecutive quarters of negative GDP growth.

However, that isn’t always the case, and it’s generally the NBER’s decision to determine recessions. The committee noted that “a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, normally visible in production, employment, and other indicators. A recession begins when the economy reaches a peak of economic activity and ends when the economy reaches its trough.

The recession brings to an end the longest expansion in U.

Dating Business Cycle Turning Points

Assuming recently released economic data and projections for the U. It is not in the forecasting business. Its role is to provide historical context. In the time since its creation in , the BCDC has formally announced the business-cycle peak anywhere from five to 11 months after the fact.

In recent years, the dating committee has primarily relied on four monthly indicator measures of economic performance to determine cyclical peaks and troughs;.

The Committee had to adapt the NBER definition, however, to reflect specific features of the euro area. The euro area groups together a set of different countries. Although subject to a common monetary policy since , they even now have heterogeneous institutions and policies. Moreover, European statistics are of uneven quality, long time series are not available, and data definitions differ across countries and sources. Skip to main content Skip to navigation. Quarterly series are currently the most reliable European data for our purposes and those around which a reasonable consensus can be achieved.

The CEPR Committee analyses euro area aggregate statistics, but it also monitors country statistics to make sure that expansions or recessions are widespread over the countries of the area. There is no fixed rule by which country information is weighted. The CEPR Committee views real GDP euro area aggregate, as well as national as the main measure of macroeconomic activity, but it also looks at additional macroeconomic variables, for several reasons.


In this study, we review the growing marketing literature on how to attenuate or amplify the impact of BC fluctuations. Our discussion focuses on three key aspects: 1 the scope of, and insights from, existing BC research in marketing, 2 advancements in the methods to study various BC phenomena in marketing, and 3 some emerging trends that offer new challenges and opportunities for future BC research in marketing. Marketing research has long overlooked the impact of business cycle BC fluctuations.

An often-used definition of BCs goes back to the classic study of Burns and Mitchell , p. Importantly, these cycles are visible across multiple aggregate economic series such as real Gross Domestic Product GDP , real income, or employment, among others Stock and Watson For the U.

These algorithms help us understand in understanding the amplitude of business cycles in the expansion and recession phase. Apart from this, it.

The NBER is an non-government organization, so their dating doesn’t always coincide with the official dating by the Federal government. Ascriptions of “events” characterizing the swings are our own. Jacksonian Bubble approx. The subsequent over-supply of credit led to a lowering of interest rates and fuelled an investment boom, directed mainly at canal-building, railroad-building and farm construction in the Midwest.

European financial institutions jump into the fray. Rising price of farmland begins taking the character of a speculative bubble. The Panic of Doubting the soundness of the Midwestern real estate bubble and the US government’s sudden new requirement “The Specie Circular” of that purchases of federal land be paid for in gold or silver and not bank money, the real estate bubble is burst and land prices began to fall.

Simultaneously, as specie is sucked to the West, there is a liquidity crisis among banks in the East, partly as a result of the rise in Bank of England interest rates in In May, , New York banks begin demanding payment in specie as well or rather, suspend the convertibility of paper notes to gold specie on demand , followed soon by other banks throughout the US. The international payments system based on American cotton bills of exchange is severely disrupted as there is a “flight to quality” towards British-drawn bills and American bills are refused in London.

Business Cycles

Reuters – The U. The Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research said in a statement its members “concluded that the unprecedented magnitude of the decline in employment and production, and its broad reach across the entire economy, warrants the designation of this episode as a recession, even if it turns out to be briefer than earlier contractions. The designation was expected, but notable for its speed, coming a mere four months after the recession began.

monetary integration is not necessary for the US economic policy to affect the other countries’ identical business cycle turning point dates. 4. Empirical results​.

How does the Committee Define a Business Cycle? See Methodology. What data does the Committee use? See Data Sources. How is the Committee’s membership determined? The financial press often states the definition of a recession as two consecutive quarters of decline in real GDP. How does that relate to your recession dating procedure?

The Business Cycle (Economic Expansions and Contractions) Explained in One Minute

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